Posts Tagged ‘science’
Carnivore nerds, have I got news for you.
The California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) has shared access to their 2014 Ecoregion Biodiversity Monitoring (EBM) data for the Northern Sierra Nevada Ecoregion! This means we can now go online and view occurrence locations on a web-based viewer (called BIOS).
About the EBM:
EBM is a wildlife monitoring project, which annually surveys over 100 species of birds and mammals. The project area covers twenty percent of California and fifty percent of its total forested area. Funding is provided through US Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) grants. Data collected from this project is used by researchers to assess habitat conditions and wildlife population trends.
Thankfully, CDFW has also shared some charismatic images on their Facebook page. My personal favorites are of the carnivores. Please note, baiting wildlife is not legal except in approved scientific studies such as this.
What this means is I can easily look up animal locations. Right now I’m curious about gray fox land use, so with a few clicks I was able to create this map, with each hexagon indicating a gray fox detection on their camera array.
But wait, there’s more! Metadata for each polygon, including camera coordinates, are available for geospatial analysis.
Awhile ago I came across this fantastic paper sculpture of a human torso, complete with removable organs, built by Horst Kiechle. The anatomical detail is spectacular, considering Kiechle constructed the sculpture entirely from 200gms/sqm white card. You can even build your own organs, using instructions found here.
I soon found that the internet abounds with paper art crafted by science geeks, much of which is origami. Below are some of the more interesting creations out there.
Origami is derived from the Japanese words “ori” meaning “fold” and “kami” meaning paper. The traditional concept of origami is folding paper to create objects using only one piece of paper with no cuts or glue.
And, while not officially origami (the use of two paperclips and several staples is involved), the Origami Embryo is probably the most clever tutorial on embryonic development I’ve seen. Using three sheets of paper, Dr. Diana Darnell demonstrates how the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm fold upon one another to create embryonic organs. Working through this tutorial would likely help countless biology undergrads who are primarily tactile or visual learners get a better grasp (har har) on early organogenesis.
Finally, an origami post would be incomplete without at least one Eric Joisel (1956-2010) creation. Here’s to you, beloved pangolin:
Apes are subject to “naturally” occurring pathogens like Ebola and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) as well as some diseases we humans transmit. Both types of disease are important sources of mortality in wild chimpanzees and gorillas.
In a paper published in PlosOne (December 2011), Dr. Sadie J. Ryan and Dr. Peter D. Walsh present their findings based on an analysis of the consequences of non-intervention for infectious disease in African great apes. In short: wild great ape recovery from disease is slow, and a single outbreak can devastate a population.
We found that the predicted recovery time for this specific gorilla population from a single outbreak ranged from 5 years for a low mortality (4%) respiratory outbreak, to 131 years for an Ebola outbreak that killed 96% of the population. This shows that mortality rates comparable to those recently reported for disease outbreaks in wild populations are not sustainable.
Given the grave impact a single infectious disease outbreak may have on ape populations, the researchers evaluate how to best impede such outbreaks from occurring. Both non-interventionist actions, like limiting tourist access to apes and community health programs, as well as more direct actions like vaccination were proposed as ways to protect great apes from disease:
Based on our research here, we suggest that the great ape conservation community should pursue and promote treatment and vaccination, as weapons in the arsenal for fighting the decline of African apes. This should include rigorous assessments of both safety and cost-effectiveness, and should emphasize program sustainability, with particular attention to the training of African veterinary personnel.
Let’s face it, we can never see too many stories about male animals that gestate their young and give birth. — Catherine de Lange
The handsome fellow pictured above is a short-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus hippocampus). In addition to his good looks, this guy will carry and birth hundreds of babies on the behalf of his mate.
Unfortunately, our handsome seahorse is endangered due to pollution, fishing, and use in eastern medicine. The number of adults is dwindling, as are the number of surviving babies that once maintained the population. H. hippocampus reproductive success is relatively low — of the 1000 young released by male seahorses, less than 0.06% survive. Like almost all other fish species, seahorses don’t care for their young after birth. Instead, infants are susceptible to predators or ocean currents which wash them away from feeding grounds or into temperatures too extreme for their delicate bodies. Given the new threats the animals face, this reproductive strategy has left the short-snouted seahorse at a disadvantage.
One approach to bolster the numbers of endangered animals is captive breeding with subsequent release into the wild. Scientists are doing just that for H. hippocampus, with some amount of success: a record-breaking 918 baby short-snouted sea horses were born at London Zoo’s Aquarium in 2010. You can watch a video about the seahorses and the captive rearing program at New Scientist. Next step for science: successful release of the wee-horses.
In the article, “Let the polar bears die, liberals: It’s only your beloved evolution at work” author S.E. Cupp argues that if polar bears (or any other single species) are on track for extinction, we should not interfere. At one point Cupp asserts that protecting an endangered animal would be meddling with evolution:
“The crass and sometimes violent coming and going of species proves evolution’s central logic. So why, then, do polar bear activists insist that another species – that would be us – tamper with Darwin’s grand design and swoop in to save an animal that simply wasn’t fit enough to make it in the cutthroat world of biological survival?”
I disagree with Cupp that we should forgo the protection of endangered animals in favor of allowing threatened wildlife to become extinct. Further, the argument that wildlife conservation intrudes on evolution is fallacious, and exposes Cupp’s fundamental misunderstanding of evolution, natural selection and artificial selection.
To take a step back, understanding the difference between evolution, natural selection and human-caused (or artificial) selection is crucial before considering whether to conserve wildlife. Natural selection and evolution are not synonymous. Simply put, evolution occurs when a population changes over time in response to pressure from the environment. Natural selection is how changes can accumulate in an evolving population. As a result of natural selection, individuals with certain traits survive and reproduce at the expense of their peers. Evolution by natural selection happens very slowly, as living things respond to their environment over hundreds to thousands of years.
Artificial selection, also known as selective breeding or human-caused selection, was first described by Charles Darwin to distinguish the process from natural selection. As opposed to natural selection, in which the environment acts as a sieve through which only certain variations can pass, in artificial selection humans favor specific traits and direct their persistence. Artificial selection — which Cupp mistakenly refers to as “evolution” — is not the result of random, unpredictable events like weather or natural disasters, but is a direct result of our behavior.
Humans have drastically altered the appearance of animals and plants within a few generations by way of artificial selection. Consider the creation of hundreds of distinct dog breeds selected and maintained by humans within the past 150 years or the directed transformation of teosinte into modern cultivars of corn for food. The rapid evolution of such radical changes in structure and function are unheard of with natural selection.
While it’s true that we have loaded the atmosphere with an unprecedented amount of carbon dioxide and global temperatures are changing as a result, it is not true that we have no control over the situation. Further, the extreme changes in the composition of atmosphere have taken place within the past 2oo years — a pace exclusive to artificial selection. When humans accelerate change with artificial selection, the participants of natural selection can, understandably, not keep up.
As humans we have the ability to understand cause and effect. We are able to think about consequences, make responsible choices about how to behave and when to change the way we do things. The same cannot be said for nature with its weather and natural disasters. As sentient beings with a conscience and the ability to make premeditated decisions, it is our responsibility to maintain our planet for future generations — both human and animal.
Every year the Olympus BioScapes Digital Imaging Competition shares mind-blowing images captured through microscopes. Not only are the winning images beautiful, they offer a pleasant summary of novel research taking place in today’s life science research labs.
Below are a my favorites from the 2010 winning entries. The entire gallery of winning entries and runners up can be seen here.
The results are in for the September photo competition at New Scientist! The theme was Science in Motion, a topic interpreted in so many ways the posted gallery is a wonderfully diverse collection of images.
The winning entry was from Andrea Gabrieli for his photo of Genovese snow adding a rare visual element to air turbulence.
My favorite is an entry submitted by Mario Cirillo of Italy. Cirillo’s entry overlays the reflection of trees with fish swimming in a pool, suggesting the fish are floating through the misty air between the trees. Beautiful.